url_launcher

pub package

A Flutter plugin for launching a URL. Supports iOS, Android, web, Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Usage

To use this plugin, add url_launcher as a dependency in your pubspec.yaml file.

Example

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:url_launcher/url_launcher.dart';

const String _url = 'https://flutter.cn';

void main() => runApp(
      const MaterialApp(
        home: Material(
          child: Center(
            child: RaisedButton(
              onPressed: _launchURL,
              child: Text('Show Flutter homepage'),
            ),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );

void _launchURL() async {
  if (!await launch(_url)) throw 'Could not launch $_url';
}

See the example app for more complex examples.

Configuration

iOS

Add any URL schemes passed to canLaunch as LSApplicationQueriesSchemes entries in your Info.plist file.

Example:

<key>LSApplicationQueriesSchemes</key>
<array>
  <string>https</string>
  <string>http</string>
</array>

See -[UIApplication canOpenURL:] for more details.

Android

Starting from API 30 Android requires package visibility configuration in your AndroidManifest.xml otherwise canLaunch will return false. A <queries> element must be added to your manifest as a child of the root element.

The snippet below shows an example for an application that uses https, tel, and mailto URLs with url_launcher. See the Android documentation for examples of other queries.

<queries>
  <!-- If your app opens https URLs -->
  <intent>
    <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
    <data android:scheme="https" />
  </intent>
  <!-- If your app makes calls -->
  <intent>
    <action android:name="android.intent.action.DIAL" />
    <data android:scheme="tel" />
  </intent>
  <!-- If your sends SMS messages -->
  <intent>
    <action android:name="android.intent.action.SENDTO" />
    <data android:scheme="smsto" />
  </intent>
  <!-- If your app sends emails -->
  <intent>
    <action android:name="android.intent.action.SEND" />
    <data android:mimeType="*/*" />
  </intent>
</queries>

Supported URL schemes

The launch method takes a string argument containing a URL. This URL can be formatted using a number of different URL schemes. The supported URL schemes depend on the underlying platform and installed apps.

Common schemes supported by both iOS and Android:

SchemeAction
http:<URL> , https:<URL>, e.g. http://flutter.devOpen URL in the default browser
mailto:<email address>?subject=<subject>&body=<body>, e.g. mailto:smith@example.org?subject=News&body=New%20pluginCreate email to
tel:<phone number>, e.g. tel:+1 555 010 999Make a phone call to
sms:<phone number>, e.g. sms:5550101234Send an SMS message to

More details can be found here for iOS and Android

Note: URL schemes are only supported if there are apps installed on the device that can support them. For example, iOS simulators don't have a default email or phone apps installed, so can't open tel: or mailto: links.

Encoding URLs

URLs must be properly encoded, especially when including spaces or other special characters. This can be done using the Uri class. For example:

String? encodeQueryParameters(Map<String, String> params) {
  return params.entries
      .map((e) => '${Uri.encodeComponent(e.key)}=${Uri.encodeComponent(e.value)}')
      .join('&');
}

final Uri emailLaunchUri = Uri(
  scheme: 'mailto',
  path: 'smith@example.com',
  query: encodeQueryParameters(<String, String>{
    'subject': 'Example Subject & Symbols are allowed!'
  }),
);

launch(emailLaunchUri.toString());

Warning: For any scheme other than http or https, you should use the query parameter and the encodeQueryParameters function shown above rather than Uri's queryParameters constructor argument, due to a bug in the way Uri encodes query parameters. Using queryParameters will result in spaces being converted to + in many cases.

Handling missing URL receivers

A particular mobile device may not be able to receive all supported URL schemes. For example, a tablet may not have a cellular radio and thus no support for launching a URL using the sms scheme, or a device may not have an email app and thus no support for launching a URL using the mailto scheme.

We recommend checking which URL schemes are supported using the canLaunch in most cases. If the canLaunch method returns false, as a best practice we suggest adjusting the application UI so that the unsupported URL is never triggered; for example, if the mailto scheme is not supported, a UI button that would have sent feedback email could be changed to instead open a web-based feedback form using an https URL.

Browser vs In-app Handling

By default, Android opens up a browser when handling URLs. You can pass forceWebView: true parameter to tell the plugin to open a WebView instead. If you do this for a URL of a page containing JavaScript, make sure to pass in enableJavaScript: true, or else the launch method will not work properly. On iOS, the default behavior is to open all web URLs within the app. Everything else is redirected to the app handler.

Libraries

url_launcher